2) The Background of Karbala
was born to the daughter of the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace), Sayyida Fatima, in the month of Shaban 4 Hijra,
Sayyiduna Hasan, Husain and Mohsin were three brothers. Mohsin passed away in his
infancy. When Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain's older brother, was born, Sayyiduna
Ali named him Harb. When the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) enquired as to the chosen name, Sayyiduna Ali
said that the name 'Harb' had been chosen. However, the Prophet replied his name
should be 'Hasan'. When Imam Husain was born, Sayyiduna Ali again named Imam Husain
'Harb'. The Prophet again said, "no his name is Husain." When the third child was
born Sayyiduna Ali again named him Harb, the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) again said, "No his name is Mohsin." Then the
Prophet said, "I have given the children the same names that the prophet Harun (alai
his sallam) gave his children." His childrens' names were Shaber, Sabbir, and Moshabir,
in other words Hasan, Husain, and Mohsin. The names Hasan and Husain are from the
people of Paradise. In the time of ignorance, before the time of the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) no one had been given these names.
Ibn Atheer narrates the above incident in his book, Usdul-Gabah]
Husain was born, the Prophet
(sallal ho alihi wasallam) came and recited the Adhan in his ear. Sayyiduna Hasan
and Husain had the likeness of the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace), Sayyiduna Hasan from the chest upwards looked
very similar to the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace), and Imam Husain looked identical from the
waist down to our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace).
Gabah fi Ma'refat-i- Sahabah - biography of Sayyiduna Imam Husain by Allama Ibn
OF IMAM HUSAIN
Katheer writes that one day an angel came and sat down by the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace). Our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said to Umme Salma (the wife of the Prophet
and the mother's of the believers), "we have a guest, do not let any one enter as
we are having a conversation." In the meantime Imam Husain, who at the time was
very young, entered the room, and as children do, Imam Husain climbed on top of
our Prophet's shoulder. The angel said "Do you love him"; Our Prophet replied "Yes".
The angel then said "Your followers will at a later time martyr him. If you wish
I can show you where he will be martyred. Our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said he would like to see where his grandson
would be martyred. The angel then waved his hand and brought some red soil and said,
"This is the place where he will be martyred." Our Prophet took some soil from his
hand and gave it to Umme Salma. She put the soil in a bottle.
it became known amongst the companions that Imam Husain would be martyred in a place
called Karbala. Our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) told them that if any of them are present at
the time, they should support him. Sayyiduna Anas bin Harris was with Imam Husain
in Karbala and was martyred.
Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, was in Iraq and was passing
the field of Karbala with Abu Abdullah. He shouted, "O Abu Abdullah stop! O Abu
Abdullah go and stop near the river Euphrates". Sayyiduna Ali then said, "One day
I went to see the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) and he had tears in his eyes. When I asked
him why he had tears in his eyes, he said that the angel Gabriel had come to see
him and had told him that Husain will be martyred near the river Euphrates, and
the angel had given him some soil from there".
narration it is said that once Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with
him, was passing by a place, he asked: "What is this place called? Someone said,
"This is Karbala." Sayyiduna Ali seighed, "O Karbala". He stopped there and performed
salah (prayer) and then said that the people who will be martyred here will have
the highest status among martyrs, after the companions, and they will enter Paradise
without any reckoning. While Sayyiduna Ali was there he pointed to the place where
Imam Husain would be martyred. The narrator confirms that Imam Husain was in fact
martyred in the exact spot Sayyiduna Ali had pointed to.
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said, "Imam Husain and Sayyiduna Hasan are
my two flowers of the world." He also said, "Whoever loves them loves me and whoever
hates them, hates me. Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, said
that the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) looked towards Sayyiduna Hasan, Imam Husain
and Sayyiduna Fatima and said, "Whoever fights with you, I will fight with him and
whoever loves you I will love him."
Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, said, "One day the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) came to us, and on one of his shoulders was
Sayyiduna Hasan and on the other Imam Husain. On the way to us we saw that sometimes
he would kiss Sayyiduna Hasan and sometimes he would kiss Imam Husain. One person
spoke and said, "Our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) do you love them very dearly? The Prophet answered,
"Yes, I love them dearly. Whoever loves them I will also love him and whoever holds
a grudge against them, he in fact holds a grudge against me."
Laila bin Murrah says, "The Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said that Husain is mine and I am his. Whoever
loves Husain, Allah Most High will love him because Husain is my grandson."
Abu Sa'id Khudri says that the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said that Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain are the
leaders of the youth in Paradise.
Sa'd narrates that Imam Husain came into the Mosque. Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah,
who was the companion of the Prophet, said, "I have heard from the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) that whoever wants to see the leader of Paradise
should look at Husain."
Abu Huraira, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, narrates that the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said that he loved Imam Husain and Sayyiduna
Hasan and whoever loved him should love them. The Prophet made supplication to Allah
Most High that I love Hasan and Husain and hope you also love and protect them.
He also narrates that once Hasan and Husain came into the Mosque (Masjid-I-Nabawi)
and the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) was performing his prayer. When he would go
into prostration Sayyiduna Hasan and Husain would jump onto his back, and when our
(Allah bless him and give him peace) sat up from the prostration, he would slowly
put them down. When he would go into prostration again they would jump on his back
again, until he would finish the prayers. Sayyiduna Abu Huraira said that he went
to the Prophet and said, "Shall I take them to their mother as it is getting darker
outside". As soon as he finished saying this, a light lit up on the path from the
Mosque to the house of their mother (Fatima). The light was so strong that we could
see Sayyida Fatima's house from where we were sitting. The Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) said to his grandsons "You may go home now."
Ibn Katheer by Hafiz Ibn Katheer - chapter on Karbala and Imam Husain ]
written by Hafiz Ibn Katheer in the excellence of Imam Husain have been collected
from Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi, Musnad Ahmed, and other books of Hadith. These ahadith
have been accepted as authentic ahadith by all of the following scholars:
(b) Hafiz Ibn Qayyim
(c) Hafiz Ibn Katheer
(d) Qadi Shuwkani
(d) Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab.
As some people do not accept the authenticity of a hadith unless it is accepted
by particular scholars. Therefore, we have taken all these Ahadith from Hafiz Ibn
Katheer's book rather than original books of Hadith.
Mu'awiyah was the son of Amir, who was the companion of our Prophet
(sallalaho alihi wasallam). He was born in either 26th or the 27th year of the Hijra.
His mother, Maysun, was divorced from Amir but Yazid lived with his father. Yazid
was a very clever, witty and intelligent boy.
a passion for music and alcohol. He always had a hangover in the morning due to
his heavy drinking from the night before. When he hunted, he travelled with many
dogs and enjoyed watching animals fighting one another. His fondness of his pets
went to such extremes that his pets even travelled on horses laden with gold, and
when a pet died, he would mourn for it. Some historians claim that he died due to
one of his pets actually biting him while he was playing with it. However, there
are many versions as to how he actually died, and Allah ta'ala knows best.
Amir Mu'awiyah could do nothing but reprimand his son for his ways, and offer him
advice. He advised him repeatedly, "O my son, why do you indulge yourself in these
evil things? Your enemies will triumph at your actions, while your friends will
never respect you." As time progressed, so did the habits; all the father could
do was to advise him, while the son ignored the advice his father gave.
Yazid asked his father if after his earthly departure, he would be made the King.
Yazid promised that he would do nothing but righteous deeds and rule like 'Umar
Ibin al-Khatab. Amir was so surprised that he responded by saying, "Sub-han Allah!
How can this be possible? I swear by Allah, the Most High, that I have tried my
very best to even come near to what 'Umar used to do, and I have not been able to
do that!" History proves that Yazid did not in fact implement the Islmaic political,
social and economic system like Umar Ibn al- Khattab.
ibn Kathir, Biography of Yazid bin Mu'awiyah)
also difference of opinion as to when Yazid died. Abu Bakra bin Ayash says that
the people took bay'ah with Yazid in 60 Hijra, and he died in Rabi-ul-Awwal 60 Hijra.
But in fact he died on 15th Rabi-ul-Awwal 64 Hijra; and he was 48 years old at that
time. Lisanul Mizan Biography Yazid bin Mu'awiya by Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalanee
ALLEGIANCE TO YAZID BIN MU'AWIY
death of Amir Mu'awiya may Allah Most High be pleased with him, his son Yazid became
the ruler of the Muslims. Most of the people had pledged their allegiance to him.
However, three of the companions of the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) in Madina had not done so. It was due to this
fact that Yazid wrote a letter to The governor of Madina who at the time was Waleed
bin Utbah. In it he wrote:
has passed away, making me the King. I hope that you can convince these three men
to swear allegiance to me'.
Sahabah he made refernecnce to:
(1) Imam Husain, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.
(2) Abdullah bin Zubair, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.
(3) Abdullah bin Umar, may Allah Most High be pleased with him.'
bin Utbah received the letter, one of his friends Marwan was sitting with him. He
asked his advice on the matter of the allegiance of these three men. Marwan said
to The governor, "Send someone to call for Imam Husain and Abdullah bin Zubair immediately,
and order them to swear allegiance to Yazid. If they obey then leave them, but if
they refuse then you should have them killed. If they find out that Amir Mu'awiya,
may Allah Most High be pleased with him, has passed away each of them will claim
that they are the Amirs (leaders). Do not worry about Abdullah bin Umar as he has
no desire to fight or become a leader, unless all the people get together and ask
him to become their leader."
HUSAIN AND ABDULLAH BIN ZUBAIR WERE CALLED
sent one of his men to call Imam Husain and Abdullah bin Zubair. He told him that
he would find them in the mosque since he had just left the Mosque himself and had
seen them sitting there. When the person reached the Mosque and told them that The
governor wanted to see them both, they replied that they would come soon. When he
left they discussed the reasons The governor would want to see them since The governor
himself had very recently left the mosque. When they could not come up with any
reason for his request to see them, they decided to leave and go home. When Imam
Husain arrived home he called all the males from the house and asked them to accompany
him to The governor's house." When they reached his house, Imam Husain instructed
them to wait outside, and only enter the house if he called them or if The governor
raised his voice.
entered the house of The governor. After greeting him, The governor and Marwan gave
him the letter which they had received from Yazid. After reading the letter Imam
Husain was saddened by the news that Amir Mu'awiya had passed away and prayed to
Allah Most High to shower his blessings upon his grave. The second part of the letter
concerned their allegiance. Imam Husain said that it was not appropriate for a person
of his status to pledge allegiance to Yazid secretely. But if they were to gather
all the people of Madina together to swear their allegiance to Yazid, he would be
the first among them to speak out about. The governor agreed to invite the people
in the following morning. But Marwan spoke up immediately advising The governor,
"Ask him to swear allegiance to Yazid now, otherwise you will not be able to obtain
allegiance from him later, until there are rivers of blood flowing between you and
him. If you do not do this, I will kill Imam Husain right now." Imam Husain spoke
with anger and said "Neither you or The governor can kill me as Allah Most High
is with me." Then Imam Husain left. On his departure Marwan said to The governor,
"You have made a grave error in letting Imam Husain leave." Waleed said, "I swear
by Allah Most High that I did not wish to kill Imam Husain for the reason of allegiance.
And I also swear that if I were given all the possession of a kingdom I still would
not have killed him."
BIN ZUBAIR LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH
bin Zubair arrived home he hid inside. The governor sent his people a number of
times to call him. In the end they surrounded his house and called out that if he
did not come out they would come to see him the next morning. During the night Abdullah
bin Zubair came out very upset and told the people to tell The governor that he
would come the next morning to see him. During the night Abdullah bin Zubair and
his brother left for Makkah through a road which was not very well known to the
travellers. When The governor found out that he had been tricked, he sent his men
to find them, but by that time they had gone. When Abdullah bin Zubair reached Makkah,
some of his supporters were already there and he began living in Makkah with them.
The governor of Makkah, Umar bin Sa'id, used to come to the Ka'bah to pray and circumblate
it (do Tawaf). He would also lead the prayers. Abdullah bin Zubair and his supporters
refused to join them in prayers.
HUSAIN LEFT MADINA FOR MAKKAH
Husain left The governor's house, he returned home and discussed with his brother
what he should do. Imam Husain's brother, Muhammad bin Hanfiah, said, "You should
go to another city and send your representative to different cities to convince
people to swear their allegiance to you. If the people swear allegiance to you then
you should thank Allah Most High and if they decide to choose someone else as their
leader, it would still not affect your religion or the respect people have for you.
If you cannot do this then you should stay in the desert or the mountains and send
your representative to different cities, or even keep changing cities until all
the people in each town accept you as their leader. I am also afraid that you may
go to towns where only a few will support you and the majority will oppose you.
If there were a conflict between them I would not like you to be there to get the
blame." Imam Husain then asked his brother which city he should go to. His brother
replied, "Go to Makkah."
BIN UMAR & ABDULLAH BIN ABBAS
bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas were in Makkah at the time when Amir Mu'awiyya passed
away. They were coming towards Madina. Between the road from Makkah to Madina they
met Imam Husain and when they found out that Imam Husain was intending to leave
for Kufa, they dissuaded him form undertaking this journey. They reminded him of
the flick-mindedness and betraying mentality of Kufans. Imam Husain maintained that
it was important to tear the mask of Islam from the face of unIslamic rulers, and
to alienate the Muslims from their misguided rulers. He asserted that it was incumbent
to uphold the banner of Islam and defend the fundamental principles of Islamic political
system. They had a long conversation on this subject, and after a while they each
carried on with their journey. When Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas reached
Madina they swore allegiance to Yazid.
GOVERNOR OF MADINA
Yazid found out that The governor of Madina had not forced Imam Husain or Abdullah
bin Zubair to accept Yazid as the true ruler of the Muslims. He terminated his position
as governor and appointed a new governor, Umar bin Sa'id al-Ashraq. The new governor
was appointed in the month of Ramadan in the 60th Hijra. As soon as he became The
governor he found out that Abdullah bin Zubair and his brother Umar bin Zubair had
a conflict between them. He saw an opportunity to exploit their conflict for his
own benefit and appointed Umar bin Zubair the chief of the police force, and told
him to arrest all of his brother's supporters. Some of the people he arrested were
regarded as very pious and holy men and some of them were the companions or sons
of the companions of the Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace). He arrested all of them and punished them
with 40 to 60 lashes per person.
then called a meeting to discuss who should be sent to Makkah to arrest Abdullah
bin Zubair. Umar bin Zubair volunteered to go to Makkah to his brother. The governor
gave him an army of 700 men and ordered him arrest Abdullah bin Zubair and his followers.
When Umar bin Zubair was ready to leave with his army the friend of the old governor
(Marwan) said to Umar bin Zubair, "Makkah is a city where even hunting a bird is
Haram (forbidden), so how are you going to fight in Makkah? Your brother Abdullah
bin Zubair is a fragile old man of sixty. What risk can he pose to somone in your
position? Umar Bin Zubair said, "I swear by Allah Most High that I will fight with
my brother even if he is in the Ka'bah itself."
conversation was taking place, Abu Shureah Khuzaei, a companion of our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace), said to The governor, "I have heard a Hadith
from our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace), that fighting in Makkah is Haraam, even for
him it was only allowed for a very short time and then it was made Haraam again.
So you should not go to Makkah and fight." Upon hearing this, The governor replied
to Abu Shureah, "We know more about the respect of Makkah than you."
Umar bin Zubair left towards Makkah with his army. When they neared Makkah they
camped outside and Umar bin Zubair sent a messenger to his brother. The messenger
said to Abdullah bin Zubair, " I have been sent to you by The governor of Madina
to arrest you and take you back with me, so that you may swear allegiance to him
in person as he will not accept it in writing or verbally. If you give yourself
up to me I will put a very thin collar round your neck so that it cannot be noticed
by your people and they will not lose respect for you. I will then take you back
to Syria to King Yazid. You and I both know it is forbidden to shed blood in Makkah."
bin Zubair received this message from his brother he replied by saying, " You have
come here with the intention to fight so we will fight, I will send my people to
fight with you outside Makkah." Umar bin Zubair's army was defeated in the battle;
some of his army men either escaped or were killed, and others, including Umar bin
Zubair, were captured. Abdullah bin Zubair told his brother that all of his followers
would be lashed in the same way as Abdullah's supporters were lashed in Madina previously.
After the lashing took place Abdullah bin Zubair's brother, Umar bin Zubair, died.
HUSAIN IN MAKKAH
his way to Makkah Imam Husain also met Abdullah bin Muti'; when he discovered that
imam Husain may undertake a journey to Kufa, he warned Imam Husain about the Kufans,
"Do not go near the city of Kufa under any circumstances because the people of Kufa
are very disloyal. The people of Kufa martyred your father, Sayyiduna Ali, and also
contested with your brother, Sayyiduna Hasan." He advised Imam Husain not to leave
the surroundings of Makkah under any circumstances. "You are the leader of the Arabs,
therefore whoever loves you and accepts you as their leader will come to you without
you having to go to them. Unless the people of Makkah tell you to leave, do not
leave Makkah", He added.
to this advice Imam Husain carried on with his journey to Makkah and remained and
settled there. Time and time again people used to come to him and tell him about
the situation of Kufa and the evil ways of Yazid. At that time Abdullah bin Zubair
was also settled in Makkah and spent much time in the Ka'bah praying and worshiping
Allah. Abdullah bin Zubair recognised the higher religious status and elevated rank
of Imam Husain and knew that whilst Imam Husain was in Makkah nobody was going to
swear allegiance to him as the leader of the Muslims.
TO IMAM HUSAIN FROM THE PEOPLE OF KUFA
people of Kufa heard that Imam Husain had migrated to Makkah, they gathered in Sulaiman
bin Surad's house and discussed how to invite Imam Husain to Kufa from Makkah. It
was decided that a letter of invitation would be sent to Imam Husain. In the letter
they wrote: "Yazid has appointed Nu'man bin Bashir as The governor of Kufa and none
of us has sworn allegiance to him; nor do we pray any salah, Friday prayer or Eid
prayer behind him. If you come to us we shall swear allegiance to you and we will
remove him from his post." Signatures of many people supported the letter. Within
two days of sending this letter another letter was sent again with similar contents
to Imam Husain and this time backed by 150 signatures. After that a third letter
then a fourth, and so on; every two days a letter was sent to Imam Husain. Some
people even went to invite Imam Husain to Kufa in person. On receiving all the letters
and personal invitations, Imam Husain's opinion of the people of Kufa began to change.
wrote a letter to the people of Kufa, stating that he appreciated the situation
in Kufa and was sending one of his cousins, Muslim bin Aqeel, to them, so he could
assess the situation of Kufa and inform him of his opinion. He further added that
he would himself come to Kufa soon because only he who follows the book of Allah
Most High and establishes justice in the country could be the leader of the Muslims.
BIN AQEEL GOES TOWARDS KUFA
Aqeel left for Kufa with the letter. He reached Madina, which was on his journey;
he prayed salah in the Prophet's Mosque. After saying the prayer he acquired two
guides to go to Kufa with him. It seems that misfortune overtook Muslim bin Aqeel's
journey to Kufa; they ran out of water and the two guides passed away due to dehydration.
Muslim bin Aqeel survived and reached an oasis and found water. Later, he wrote
a letter to Imam Husain explaining all the difficulties that he had encountered
during the journey to Kufa. In addition, he wrote that the journey was cursed and
requested for a proxy to be sent in his place.
Husain received the letter from Muslim bin Aqeel he replied by telling him to stop
being so cowardly and continue with the journey to Kufa. Upon receiving this letter,
Muslim continued with his journey to Kufa. It was 1st of Zil-Hijjah 60 A.H. when
he reached Kufa. He settled in Kufa and the Shi'ah people used to come and visit
him. Muslim bin Aqeel used to read the letters from Imam Husain to them. When the
people would hear these letters, they would weep and pledge to support Imam Husain
to their last breath.
OF KUFA WAS INFORMED
Bashir was The governor of Kufa at the time and he had found out that Imam Husain
had sent Muslim bin Aqeel as his representative and that the Shi'ah people of Kufa
were visiting him and swearing allegiance to him. Upon hearing this The governor
gathered the people of Kufa and gave a a speech warning the people of the consequences
of opposing the government. He asserted, "Causing trouble, disturbance and fighting
amongst ourselves is not right. I will not fight, arrest or cause any kind of hardship
to any of you, even for suspicion, unless any of you start a conflict or cause trouble.
Also I will fight with the person who breaks the allegiance with our King Yazid
even if it means that I would personally have to fight with him." After he had given
this speech some of the members of his group started saying to him, "You did not
give strong indications in your speech and because of this the enemy will be encouraged
rather than frightened." The governor replied to them saying, "I can show weakness
and at the same time be obedient to Allah Most High. I did not want to show the
kind of strength with which Allah Most High is not pleased with me."
to The governor's reply Abdullah bin Muslim and Ammarah bin Waleed and Amar bin
Sa'd wrote a letter to the King Yazid, stating that Imam Husain had sent a representative
to Kufa and the Shi'ah people were swearing allegiance to him. The governor gathered
the people and gave a lecture and instead of discouraging and frightening them he
encouraged the enemies' hopes. "Therefore, if you feel that you require the city
of Kufa, then we suggest that you appoint a governor who can implement your commands
firmly, safeguard your city and keep the enemies at bay." After reading this letter,
Yazid asked advice from one of his men named Sarjoon Roomi.
OF SARJOON ROOMI
told the King he would give him the same advice he would have offered if his father
had been alive. Sarjoon instructed the King to appoint UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, the
present governor of Basra, the new Governor of Kufa. Yazid heeded this advice despite
the fact that he disliked UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. He wrote a letter to Yazid stating,
"I am appointing you as the new governor of Kufa, as well as Basra. You may appoint
someone else as your deputy in Basra. I would like you to go to Kufa immediately
and take full charge there. The situation is urgent because Imam Husain has sent
a representative, Muslim bin Aqeel, to Kufa on his behalf, who is seeking allegiance
from the people of Kufa and turning them against the government. I give you full
authority to deal with the matter as you see best; you may ask Muslim bin Aqeel
to leave Kufa, or you may execute him."
bin Ziyad received this letter from the King he gathered the people of Basra and
told them that he had been appointed the new governor of Kufa. He appointed his
brother, Uthman, as deputy governor of Basra. He instructed the people of Basra
not to cause any friction or rebel against the King since he would not tolerate
such actions and would execute anyone, even members of his family, for causing such
BIN ZIYAD GOES TOWARDS KUFA
bin Ziyad departed for his journey to Kufa with some of his family members and servants.
When they had almost reached Kufa he separated from them and told them to remian
at the outskirts of Kufa, as he wanted to enter the city by himself. When the people
of Kufa saw UbayduLlah bin Ziyad entering the city they immediately thought that
it was Imam Husain, and started to sing a song welcoming him into their city. "
Welcome, son of our Prophet, welcome son of our Prophet." UbayduLlah bin Ziyad did
not respond to their chanting but continued riding his horse towards The governor's
house. When The governor of Kufa, Nu'man bin Bashir, heard all the people singing
in celebration of Imam Husain coming to Kufa, he got frightened and locked the doors
of his house thinking Imam Husain was here to take his position and kill him. When
UbayduLlah bin Ziyad reached his house and knocked on the door, Nu'man would not
open it. UbayduLlah bin Ziyad shouted that if he did not open the doors then they
would open the doors by force. When UbayduLlah bin Ziyad uttered these words, someone
from the crowd recognised his voice and said, "This is not Imam Husain, it is UbayduLlah
bin Ziyad, The governor of Basra". The crowd immediately dispersed. Nu'man also
heard this and he opened his doors to let UbayduLlah bin Ziyad enter his house.
day UbayduLlah bin Ziyad told Nu'man to gather all the people of Kufa, and he gave
a speech telling them that he was the new governor of Kufa appointed by the King.
He told the people, " I will be lenient on the poor, and the people who are loyal
to the King, but I will arrest and punish anyone who shows disloyalty to the King.
They will feel my sword against their necks. I am here to implement the laws and
the orders of the King. I will live amongst you as a law-abiding citizen." He gave
a lengthy speech to the people. People who were in favour of Muslim bin Aqeel began
to feel frightened of UbayduLlah bin Ziyad. When Muslim bin Aqeel heard that the
people had been so frightened by the speech, he too felt fear of the person whose
house has was staying at.
BIN AQEEL MOVES PREMISES
Aqeel began making arrangements to move to someone else's house. He went to Hani
bin Urwah's house, and knocked on his door, asking whether he could stay there.
The expression on Hani bin Urwah's face told him he was not welcome. He said, "You
should not have come here as you might be creating trouble for me and my family."
Muslim bin Aqeel replied, "I have come to your house as a guest and you are telling
me that I am not welcome." Hani told him that if he felt that way, he should come
and live with him as his guest. After that Muslim bin Aqeel began living there.
BIN ZIYAD'S DETECTIVE SLAVE
bin Ziyad asked one of his slaves to act as a detective to find out where Muslim
bin Aqeel was staying. He gave him 3,000 dinars and said "Use this money in any
way that will help you find the house where Muslim bin Aqeel is hiding." The slave
took the money and started the search. His first stop was at the Mosque as it was
time to perform salah, and while he was there he saw a person performing his salah
in the distance. He asked who it was, and was told that it was Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi,
and that he was the right-hand man of Muslim bin Aqeel. When Awsaja-Asdi finished
saying his prayers the slave approached him and said, "I am a traveller from Syria,
and I am so honoured that Allah Most High has given me the love of the Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) and his family. I have found out that a relative of the Prophet is staying
in Kufa and the people of Kufa are swearing their allegiance to him. I will give
you 3,000 dinars if you can tell me where he is. If you think I cannot be trusted
or am spying on behalf of the government, I am willing to swear by Allah Most High
to reassure you that all I want is to meet him. I would be very honoured if you
could arrange this." They had a lengthy conversation but Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi
disclose Muslim bin Aqeel's residence. After that day they started to see each other
on a daily basis and became friends. Occasionally, Awsaja-Asdi took the slave with
him when he went to Hani's house. In the meantime, Hani had become very ill and
The governor, UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, came to visit him. At the same time another
person, Amarah bin Abdur-Rahman, was visiting Hani. He told Hani that it was the
perfect opportunity to kill The governor, but Hani refused saying, "No, he has come
to visit me."
few days another person called Shareek bin A'uoor who was well respected and popular
amongst the people also became ill, and came to live with Hani. When The governor
found out about his illness he sent a message to Shareek that he would come to visit
him that evening. Shareek bin A'uoor told Muslim bin Aqeel that The governor was
planning to visit him, and suggested they have him killed so that Muslim could take
his position as governor of Kufa and have complete control over the city.
listening to all this; he warned them that the time was not right for this action
As the day passed and the evening approached The governor arrived to visit Shareek
at Hani's house. They welcomed him and greeted him as their guest. After quite a
lengthy stay he left. Shareek turned to Muslim bin Aqeel and said, "You should have
killed him while you had the opportunity." Muslim bin Aqeel replied, "I did not
kill The governor for two reasons. Firstly, Hani did not want any blood-shed in
his house and I have to respect that. Secondly, our Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) has told us that it is not permissible for a Muslim to kill another Muslim."
days Shareek's health had deteriorated rapidly and sadly he passed away. A lot people
came to Hani's house to pay their respects and also came to see Muslim bin Aqeel.
Amongst these visitors was Muslim bin Awsaja-Asdi who used to come and bring the
slave (detective) along with him. The slave had been continuously reporting back
to Ibn Ziyad and informing him of Muslim bin Aqeel's activities.
health improved he began attending meetings at The governor's house daily as he
had done before Musim bin Aqeel's arrival in Kufa. However, as time progressed he
began using the excuse that he was ill so that he would not have to attend the meetings.
But the slave would report back and tell The governor that there was nothing wrong
with Hani and that he was lying. One day The governor asked the people why Hani
had not been attending the daily meetings. They answered that he was not feeling
well. The governor said, "I have evidence to believe that he is not ill at all and
he meets a lot of people daily in his own house. I would like one of you to go and
call him, and tell him that The governor would like to see him."
arrived at The governor's house he was arrested and questioned about why he had
opposed King Yazid, and why he had alllowed Muslim bin Aqeel to stay at his house,
and why he had held meetings in his home trying to persuade others to also oppose
Yazid. Hani denied the allegations but The governor told him that he had got the
information from someone who attended those meetings. Hani told The governor that
his informant was lying, upon which The governor pointed to his slave and asked
Hani if he recognised him. Hani had no choice but to confirm that he did, but swore
by Allah that he had not invited Muslim bin Aqeel into his house, but had felt too
ashamed to turm him away when he presented himself as a guest. He promised that
he would immediately tell Muslim bin Aqeel to leave his house, but The governor
replied, " I cannot let you go until you hand Muslim bin Aqeel over to me." However,
Hani refused to hand Muslim over to him saying that Muslim was his guest and if
he handed him over, he may be executed. An argument ensued between the two during
which The governor threatened to have Hani killed. Hani reminded him that he had
a large tribe of followers who would not allow The governor to get away with such
an evil act.
Hani refused to comply with the authorities, The governor ordered that he should
be locked up in prison. By the time the news of Hani's arrest reached his tribe,
it had been exaggerated to the degree that people were saying that he had been executed.
When Hani's people heard of this they came and surrounded The governor's house.
The governor started to panic. He called the judge of Kufa, Qadi Shuraih, to come
and tell Hani's people that he was alive and had been detained temporarily. After
listening to Qadi Shuraih's version of events, the people dispersed.
BIN AQEEL SURROUNDS THE GOVERNOR'S HOUSE
bin Aqeel heard of what had happened he gathered together all 18,000 people who
had sworn allegiance to him, and who were from different tribes. Four thousand of
them were already at Hani's house and soon all 18 thousand men had surrounded The
governor's house. The governor saw that he could not contend with such a vast crowd
as his police force consisted of only 30 men, so he locked himself inside his house.
The people surrounded the house all day.
again managed to fool the people and exploit the situation to his advantage. He
knew that among the people in his presence were leaders of some of the well-known
tribes, so he told them to climb on the walls of his house and instruct the people
of their tribes to leave Muslim bin Aqeel and go home. Those who followed their
instructions and went home would be pardoned by The governor and the King, but those
who did not would be arrested and punished. The leaders managed to convince their
followers to go home, and the crowd began to disperse.
OF KUFA BROKE THEIR PROMISE
there were only a few people left with Muslim bin Aqeel. He thought he might as
well tell these people to go to their homes and he should go to the Mosque. When
he turned to go to the Mosque only 30 men had remained with him. By the time he
had reached the Mosque he turned to look back and saw that he was left alone.
to enter the Mosque and say his prayers. Afterwards, he left the Mosque and started
to walk through the streets of Kufa like a stranger who had just entered the city.
Whilst walking around he became very thirsty; he reached a house and knocked on
a door to ask for some water. A woman named Tu'ah answered the door. Her son worked
for The governor as a detective. Muslim bin Aqeel asked the woman for some water
and the woman gave him some. After quenching his thirst he sat down at her doorstep
to have a rest. Tu'ah asked him if he had a home in the city. Muslim bin Aqeel did
not answer her question. She asked the same question again. After she had asked
him a number of times, he replied, "I do not have any home or relative in this town.
I would appreciate it if you could provide me refuge in your house, maybe I will
be able to repay you for this favour." Tu'ah invited Muslim bin Aqeel into her home
and told him that he could stay in a part of the house which was reserved for guests.
She then offered him some food but Muslim bin Aqeel did not feel like eating. Up
until now she was not aware of who he was, and decided to ask "Who are you?" Muslim
bin Aqeel told her who he was, and also said that he had been abandoned by the people
son, Bilal, came back from work and noticed that every now and then his mother would
go to the part of the house that was reserved for guests. He asked his mother why
she kept going there. She made him promise that he would not tell anyone what she
was about to tell him. She told him that she had invited Muslim bin Aqeel to stay
in their house as a guest and had agreed to give him refuge. After listening to
his mother, Bilal became very quiet.
BIN AQEEL WAS ARRESTED
came out of his house when he saw that the crowd had dispersed, and made an announcement
that he wanted everyone to gather at the Mosque. When all the people had gathered
at the Mosque The governor began his speech and stated, "All the people who have
supported Muslim bin Aqeel are forgiven. Muslim bin Aqeel had tried to turn the
people against the government but had not succeed. At present he is hiding in someone's
house in our city. I will give the person who finds him a reward for any information
leading to his arrest. I will also give pardon to the person whose house he is seeking
refuge in. I have informed the police to block all the exits leaving out of Kufa
to stop Muslim bin Aqeel escaping. Tomorrow a house-to-house search for him will
morning Bilal went to the governor's house to inform him that Muslim bin Aqeel had
been seeking refuge in his house. When the governor heard about this he immediately
sent 72 of his policemen to arrest Muslim bin Aqeel. When the police reached Bilal's
house they asked Muslim bin Aqeel to hand himself over to them. When they heard
no reply from the house, they entered and tried to confront Muslim bin Aqeel to
arrest him but Muslim bin Aqeel forced them out of the house. The police tried to
enter the house on several occasions but the outcome was always the same. Finally
Muslim bin Aqeel was struck on the face by the sword of Bakar bin Humran. His upper
lip was cut and two of his teeth were broken. Upon this he retaliated and struck
Bakar bin Humran across the shoulder with his sword, causing him to fall to the
ground. The officers then climbed onto the roof of the house and started to throw
stones and fire balls inside the house. Muslim bin Aqeel got on top of the roof
of the house and started to fight with the police. One of the people named Mohammed
bin Ash'at called out to Muslim bin Aqeel and told him to stop fighting and come
down and promised he would offer him protection. As there were so many policemen
opposing him, Muslim bin Aqeel decided to come down. He was reciting a poem as he
of the poem was:
"Everyone must die one day, but I do not wish to die, as I am afraid that I will
be branded a liar and will not be given protection.." Muhammad bin Ash'at said,
"I promise that I will not go back on my word." Muslim bin Aqeel was so tired from
fighting that he had to lean against a wall to rest. Some friends of The governor
were present at the time and asked Muslim bin Aqeel to hand over his sword. They
assured him that if he accompanied them to the governor's house, he would be guaranteed
protection and would not be harmed.
Muslim bin Aqeel on a donkey and took him towards the house of the governor. Tears
were flowing from Muslim bin Aqeel's eyes. Amer bin UbayduLlah asked him, "Why are
you crying? You are the one who wished to take control of Kufa. Those who try to
gain power will always have obstacles in their way which cause them problems." Muslim
bin Aqeel replied, "I am not crying for myself, but because I have written to Imam
Husain telling him to come to Kufa. At that time the people were pledging allegiance
to Yazid. . He should be getting ready to leave for Kufa and he does not even know
that the people of Kufa have broken their allegiance. I am afraid that Imam Husain
will be treated in the same way I am being treated." Then he turned towards Muhammad
bin Ash'at and said, "Do you remember your promise about giving me refuge, and also
that The governor will not harm me. I know that you will not be able to keep that
promise. The governor will have me executed. I would like you to do me one favour.
Could you write a letter from me to Imam Husain telling him not to come towards
Kufa." Muhammad bin Ash'at promised he would do that for Muslim bin Aqeel.
reached The governor's house Muhammad bin Ash'at said "Wait outside. I will go and
inform The governor that we have captured Muslim bin Aqeel." When he went inside
and told the governor, he also told him that he had promised that he would give
Muslim bin Aqeel refuge and that he would not harmed. The governor said, "Who are
you to make such promises? You were sent to arrest him not to protect him. Go and
bring him to me." The governor then sent his men outside to bring Muslim bin Aqeel
in front of him. When Muslim bin Aqeel entered the room he did not say salaam.
One of his men asked why he had not greeted The governor with salam . He replied,
"How can I greet him when he is going to execute me, if he were not then I would
greet him with plenty of salaams." When the governor heard this he replied "There
is no doubt that I am going to have you executed." Muslim bin Aqeel said, "I knew
this would happen to me." He then asked permission to make the last testimony, and
the governor granted him permission. As Muslim bin Aqeel was looking around he saw
that one of his relative, Umar bin Sa'd was standing amongst the crowd. Muslim bin
Aqeel called him over. Before he walked over to Muslim bin Aqeel, Umar bin Sa'd
looked at the governor to see his reaction. The governor knew that he was looking
at him for his permission to have a conversation with Muslim bin Aqeel. The governor
told Umar Bin Sa'd that he may proceed.
into the corner of the room and had a long conversation. At the end Muslim bin Aqeel
asked whether he could do him a few favours. First he said "I have borrowed 'X'
amount of money from so and so; could you repay them. Second, when the governor
executes me could you take my body and bury me. Third, can you write a letter to
Imam Husain telling him that when I arrived in Kufa I was greeted with respect and
comfort, and in no time I had more than 18,000 people swearing allegiance to him,
daily the numbers were increasing. But they have now all broken their promises and
their allegiances and run away. Tell him that I will be executed soon and I am writing
to him so that he does not come to Kufa as the situation here is really bad. After
he had made his requests, they both came back. The governor asked Umar Bin Sa'd
what Muslim bin Aqeel had been saying to him. He told him everything. The governor
told him that he could do as he wished about paying the money back and about writing
the letter to Imam Husain, but refused to give permission to bury Muslim bin Aqeel's
body. The governor started to abuse Muslim bin Aqeel in front of everyone and ordered
him to be taken to the roof of the building and executed. Muslim bin Aqeel started
to recite Tasbeah (prayers) as he was being led up to the roof. When they reached
the top of the building they executed him and threw his body into the street. The
governor ordered Hani to be brought and also executed in the same manner. The date
was 9th Zil-Hijjah 60 Hijra.
HUSAIN RECEIVES MUSLIM BIN AQEEL'S LETTER AND DECIDES TO GO TO KUFA
received Muslim bin Aqeel's letter, in which he had written that more than 18,000
people had sworn allegiance to him and the numbers were increasiung daily, and had
encouraged him to come to Kufa immediately. After reading this letter Imam Husain
firmly decided to leave for Kufa. The people again tried to dissuade him, reminding
that the Kufans could not be trusted and would turn against him at any time. Imam
Husain's friends would come up to him individually and aske him not to undertake
this journey. Abdullah bin Umar came to Imam Husain and said, "It is not in your
character to become a very powerful man. Also remember that Allah Most High asked
(p.b.u.h) whether he would chose worldly possession or the Hereafter, and the Prophet
replied that he wanted to enjoy the hereafter. You are also a part of the Prophet's
family, therefore you should not get so involved in the material aspect of this
world." After saying this he started to cry. After listening to Abdullah bin Umar,
Imam Husain also had tears in his eyes, and said that although his advice had been
sound, he had already made up his mind to go to Kufa.
bin Zubair also came and said, "Stay in the province of Hijaz (Makkah) and continue
seeking allegiance from the people of Makkah." Imam Husain replied to Abdullah bin
Zubair saying "Our Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) has said that one day the Kabah will be insulted by a lamb (man) and
I do not want to be that lamb (person) that is why I am leaving Makkah. In any case,
you should be happy that I am embarking on such a good cause."
What Imam Husain meant that he did not want to cause of any bloodshed in Makkh.
Imam Husain told Abdullah bin Zubair this was that he knew that he wanted to become
leader of Makkah and was himself seeking the allegiance of the people of Makkah.
Imam Husain also knew that while he was in Makkah Abdullah bin Zubair would not
be able to take allegiance from the Makkans. The next day Abdullah bin Abbas came
to see Imam Husain and asked him whether he was leaving for Kufa .Imam Husain replied
"This is true; I am going to Kufa because the people of Kufa dearly request me to
come and help them overthrow Yazid, and Muslim bin Aqeel has reassured me about
the sincerity of the people of Kufa. Abdullah bin Abbas said, "If they sincerely
wanted you to come to Kufa, the people of Kufa by now should have overthrown the
governor and made the position of governor vacant for you. You should write to them
telling them that if they want you to come to Kufa then they should vacate the position
of the governor and his house for you. If you go there while the governor is still
there then they are not your supporters but your enemies, and they are inviting
you to your death. If you still insist on going then my advice will be not to take
your wife and children but to go on your own, as I am afraid that you are going
to be martyred in Kufa. And after your death they will miss you dearly and if they
are not present there they will not suffer as much harm. If you insist on leaving
Makkah then I advise you to go to Yemen as there is plenty of land and mountains
there where you can stay. Also from there you can send your representatives to different
cities on your behalf to take allegiance for you."
he advised him to go to Yemen was that Imam Husain's father, Sayyiduna Ali, may
Allah Most High be pleased with him, was appointed the judge of Yemen by our Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) and therefore Imam Husain would have had a lot of supporters there, and
those people would have helped Imam Husain to overthrow the unjust ruler, Yazid.
After listening to all this Imam Husain said, "I am still determined to go to Kufa."
When Abdullah bin Abbas felt that Imam Husain had made up his mind, he rose and
said, "O Martyr, I leave you in the hands of Allah Most High," as he knew in his
heart that when Imam Husain reached Kufa his supporters would leave him and expose
him to the governor's brutalities, and he would be killed.
HUSAIN LEFT MAKKAH FOR KUFA
gathered all his family members and his friends and followers who were going with
him and left for Kufa. When the governor of Makkah, Amir bin Sa'id, found out about
Imam Husain's decision, he tried to stop him as he thought that he would take over
Kufa and overthrow the governor there. He sent his police to stop and arrest Imam
Husain. There was a greater struggle between the two sides, but eventually Imam
Husain and his supporters were able to defeat the police and continue with their
journey to Kufa. Along the route they frequently met travellers who pleaded Imam
Husain not to undertake this journey as no reliance could be placed upon the promises
made by the Kufans.
HUSAIN MET FARZOOQ
journey, Imam Husain met with a poet called Farzooq who was on his way to Makkah.
Imam Husain asked about the conditions of Kufa. He said, "Listen to me carefully,
as I have only just left the city. The people's hearts are still with you, but because
of the fear of Yazid, their swords are with Yazid. If the time comes when you need
them to fight with you, they will take the side of the government." Imam Husain
replied, "Whatever fate is going to bring us will be from Allah Most High. If the
people are with me it will be a gift from Allah Most High, and we will thank Allah
Most High although Allah Most High does not need our thanks. If fate is written
against us and the people turn against us then we will be patient."
FROM ABDULLAH BIN JAFFER
bin Jaffer was in Makkah. He was the brother in-law of Imam Husain as he was married
to Imam Husain's sister,Zainab. When he found out that Imam Husain had left Makkah
and gone to Kufa, he wrote a letter and sent it to him with his two sons, Oun and
Muhammad. In the letter he wrote:
Most High I am pleading with you to come back to Makkah and not go to Kufa, as when
you reach Kufa you will be killed and your family will be destroyed. And Allah forbid,
if you are martyred then your light of guidance, which is shining on the world,
will extinguish. When the people are in desperate trouble they come to you in hope
of seeking protection, and you are the beaconlight of faith and the centre of the
Believers' hopes. So please do not delay in returning back to Makkah. I have left
Makkah to meet you on the way."
Husain read the letter he did not take much notice of it but instead he told his
two nephews, "I had a dream and saw our Prophet
(Allah bless him and give him peace) and he has given me an order. Whether I will
benefit or not I will obey what our Prophet has said. His nephews asked "What is
the dream?" He replied, "I have not told anyone nor will I tell anyone until I meet
my Lord." After that they carried on with the journey to Kufa and he took his nephews
Bin Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, found out the Imam Husain was fast approaching
Kufa. He sent his forces out to the entrance of Kufa and told them that if Imam
Husain or any of his representatives tried to enter Kufa they should be arrested
and brought to him.
OF QAIS BIN MUSHIR
Mush'ir was one of the people with Imam Husain. Imam Husain wrote a letter to the
leaders of the tribes of Kufa, and said to Qais, "Take this letter to the leaders
of the tribes of Kufa and tell them that I will reach Kufa in a few days time."
When Qais was near the entrance of the gate of Kufa, the governor's men arrested
him and took him to the governor. The governor read the letter and told him that
he was going to execute him unless he climbed on top of the house and shouted abuse
to Imam Husain so that everyone could hear. Only then will he forgive him and spare
his life." Qais got on top of the roof and started to shout, "O people listen to
me. Imam Husain has arrived and is very near Kufa. Obey him, as his mother was the
daughter of our Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) and his father was Sayyiduna Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with
him, and may Allah Most High curse and destroy this governor, as he is a liar and
a cheat." When the governor heard this he ordered his men to throw Qais off the
roof. One of the governor's men pushed Qais off the roof; and he fell so hard that
both his arms and legs were broken and he split his skull open, as a result of which
he was martyred. Imam Husain continued with his journey and sent another person
named Abdullah bin Baqtr, with a similar letter to take to Kufa and give to the
leaders of the tribes. He was also arrested and taken to the governor and executed
in the same way as Qais was.
HUSAIN WAS INFORMED OF THE DEATH OF MUSLIM BIN AQEEL
found out about Muslim bin Aqeel's death at a place called Tha'labiyya where he
met a person who had recently come from Kufa. He explained in great detail to what
had been happening in Kufa; how the people had left Muslim bin Aqeel and later how
the governor martyred him. Afterwards he started to give advice, "If I were you
I would not go to Kufa. You have no support left there and the governor knows that
you are coming to Kufa and is prepared to fight with you until you surrender to
the will of Yazid; he will execute you and your followers in the same way as he
executed Muslim bin Aqeel."
for a moment, began to reconsider his decision to go to Kufa. At the same time Muslim
bin Aqeel's sons rose and said, "We swear by Allah Most High that we will seek revenge
on behalf of our father or die in the attempt and we will not leave until then."
Imam Husain said, "There is no no charm in life without you." Some of the other
people in the alos said, "We should carry on with the journey to Kufa, as there
is a lot of difference between you and Muslim bin Aqeel. The people will change
their minds when they would see you there and will come and support you and seek
revenge for Muslim bin Aqeel's death." Imam Husain started to head towards Kufa.
journey Imam Husain and his group came to a place called Zubala, there he received
information about the death of the two representatives whom he had sent earlier
to Kufa. (Qais and Baqtr). When Imam Husain heard this he was greatly saddened and
went into bereavement . He gathered the people together and told them about the
problems that they were going to face when they reached Kufa. He also said, "Those
who were to be trusted proved unfaithful, many of you might want to leave and can
gladly do so." A lot of people had joined Imam Husain along the journey thinking
that he would gain full control of Kufa, and when they reached Kufa they would benefit
from this. But when they heard this they started to disperse slowly until the only
people left were those who had initially come with Imam Husain from Makkah.
They continued with the journey, and met a person called Abdullah bin Muti'. He
said the same about Kufa, and also gave his view that they should turn back and
not go to Kufa, because at this time the governor and his people were still afraid
of Imam Husain and his followers, and if they were to go there now, the governor
of Kufa would have victory and become more oppressive towards the people, and also
Numear was put in charge of the police and was ordered to stop people entering Kufa.
He found out that Imam Husain was very near Kufa and appointed Hur the leader of
an army of 1,000 men, sending him towards Imam Husain to arrest him and his followers.
When Hur reached Imam Husain he told his men to surround him and his followers.
Imam Husain instructed his people to set up camp there, and upon noticing this Hur
also commanded his army to camp in the area and keep Imam Husain and his followers
surrounded so that they could not escape. Both groups stayed in their respective
camps. The time for Zohar prayer approached, and a member of Imam Husain's group
gave the call for prayer. Upon hearing this Imam Husain came out of his tent and
approached Hur, telling him: "I did not come here of my own accord but was called
by the people of Kufa. They sent me messages and letters and even came in person
to invite me to Kufa. If you insist that I should return to Makkah and not go to
Kufa then you should give me permission to go back."
then went back to his camp and prepared to lead the Zohar prayer. Hur and his army
also performed the prayer behind Imam Husain. After the prayer Imam Husain and Hur
returned to their respective camps. Similarly, when the time for Asr prayer arrived,
Imam Husain led Hur and his army as well as his own followers in prayer. After performing
the prayer, Imam Husain addressed Hur and his army, saying: "O people, fear Allah
(swt) and recognise the truth so that Allah will be pleased with you. At the moment,
power lies in the hands of Yazid and his governors, but they are cruel people who
lie to you, and they have no right to rule over you. We are your rightful rulers,
but if you do not recognise that right, and do not wish for us to become rulers,
or do not recognise the messages that were sent to me, then let me and my people
return to Makkah."
"I swear by Allah Most High that I have no knowledge about the letters and messages
that you keep referring to." Upon hearing this, Imam Husain put his hand inside
his satchel and pulled out all the letters and threw them towards Hur, saying, "These
are the letters I keep referring to". Hur said "I have been ordered to arrest you
and take you to UbayduLlah bin Ziyad, the governor of Kufa." Imam Husain replied,
"I would rather die than surender to your governor."
told all his people to gather their belongings and prepare to return to Makkah.
Upon hearing this Hur ordered his men to surround Imam Husain and his people and
forceyfully take them to Kufa if they refused to go voluntarily.
to Imam Husain that he should write a letter to Yazid in Syria and said he himself
would write to UbayduLlah bin Ziyad explaining the situation and hopefully some
agreement could be reached. Imam Husain once again started to get ready to leave,
and Hur again stopped them from leaving. Then Imam Husain turned to Hur and his
men and delivered a speech: "Our Prophet
(p.b.u.h.) has said that whosoever comes across a cruel and wicked ruler who does
not follow the commands of Allah (swt) and his Prophet
(p.b.u.h); who makes Halal (permissible in Islam) that which Allah has declared
Haram (not permissible in Islam) and vice versa; who oppresses people and commits
sins and does nothing to prevent the wrongs being committed, if that person does
not oppose the ruler with his words and actions, he will have to account for his
deeds in the same way that the ruler will have to account for his deeds. Look! the
ruler and the governors have stopped following the commands of Allah Most High and
have started to follow the ways of Satan and have no respect for Islam, for this
reason the Prophet's family have a greater right to rule than the king.
that I have not come here of my own accord, I have been asked to come to Kufa, so
that the people can swear their allegiance to me so do not be in contempt of me.
If you fulfil your promises then Allah Most High will be pleased with you. As you
are well aware, I am the son of Ali, may Allah Most High be pleased with him, and
my mother, Fatima, may Allah Most High be pleased with her, is the daughter of our
(p.b.u.h.). My family and I are with you and you should not break your promises
by treating us badly. However, breaking promises would be nothing new to me as you
have broken promises made to my father and my brother Hasan, and Muslim bin Aqeel,
may Allah Most High be pleased with all of them. It is a shame that you are not
acting in accordance with your religion. Promise breakers are only a loss to themselves,
and I hope and pray that Allah Most High will protect me from your evil ways."
"I again swear by Allah Most High that if you wage a battle with my men, you shall
be the one who will be defeated and killed." Imam Husain angrily replied, "Are you
trying to frighten me from death, I am not afraid to die as death will come to all
of us one day." Upon hearing this Hur was speechless. Nevertheless, he still told
his men to continue surrounding Imam Husain and his men.
PEOPLE CAME FROM KUFA TO JOIN IMAM HUSAIN
saw four or five people approaching him on camels at a distance from the direction
of Kufa. When they neared the camp, Hur tried to stop them and told them that they
could not see Imam Husain and his men. When Imam Husain heard this he said to Hur,
"Let them through because they are my supporters and have come to see me. If you
do not let them in then we shall be forced into battle right now." After some consideration
Hur let them through. Nafi' bin Hilal, one of the four men who came from Kufa, told
that the well-to-do people of Kufa had been bought by the governor and had turned
against him and the poor people of Kufa had also left him because of the fear of
the governor but in their hearts they were still with him. Nafi' then went on to
explain what had happened to Qais and Baqtr, and how the governor had executed them.
Imam Husain tried to stop the tears coming to his eyes but was hurt and saddened
too deeply to stop them flowing. Another person who had come was Tarmah bin Addi'.
He advised Imam Husain that because he did not have a large number of people with
him to defeat the governor and his men, he should go with him to where his tribe
was. Tarmah was from a place which was safe from attack because it was behind a
mountain and his own tribe of more than 20,000 people would do everything in their
power to help Imam Husain. After realising that Imam Husain would not consider going
with him Tarmah left. Imam Husain continued heading towards Kufa and reached a place
called Qasr Bani Muqatil by evening. In the morning Imam Husain and his people performed
Fajar prayer and decided to go back to Makkah, but Hur and his army would not let
them move towards Makkah. After some time, they reached a place called Nineveh.